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It became the capital of the Islamic Emirate, and then of the Caliphate of Córdoba, including most of the Iberian Peninsula.Córdoba consisted of hundreds of workshops that created goods such as silk.and in scale and intensity exceeded anything to be found elsewhere in Western Europe in these centuries.In 1002 Al-Mansur was returning to Córdoba from an expedition in the area of Rioja when he died. Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar, al-Mansur's older son, succeeded to his father’s authority, but he died in 1008, possibly assassinated.The city was divided into 14 colaciones, and numerous new church buildings were added.

Unlike other Iberian towns, no capitulation was signed and the position was taken by storm.Different areas were allocated for services in the Saint Vincent Church shared by Christians and Muslims, until construction of the Córdoba Mosque started on the same spot under Abd-ar-Rahman I.Abd al-Rahman allowed the Christians to rebuild their ruined churches and purchased the Christian half of the church of St Vincent.Córdoba was in turn governed by direct Umayyad rule.The new Umayyad commanders established themselves within the city and in 716 it became a provincial capital, subordinate to the Caliphate of Damascus; in Arabic it was known as (Qurṭubah).

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